Unique diversity of the genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula revealed by dual studies — ScienceDaily

An international research team has analyzed the ancient DNA of nearly 300 individuals from the Iberian Peninsula, more than 12,000 years old, today in Current Biology and Science . The first study investigated hunter-gatherers and early farmers who lived in Iberia between 13,000 and 6,000 years ago. The second part examines the population of all periods in the past 8,000 years. Together, these two papers have greatly increased our understanding of the population history of this unique region.

The Iberian Peninsula has long been considered an anomaly of European population history because of its unique climate and its position on the western edge of the African continent. In the last ice age, Iberia remained relatively warm, allowing plants and animals that were forced to retreat from most other parts of Europe – and possibly others – to continue to live there. Similarly, over the past 8,000 years, Iberia's geographical location, rugged terrain, location along the Mediterranean coast, and proximity to North Africa have made it uniquely interacting with other regions compared to other parts of Europe. Two new studies published simultaneously in Current Biology and Science analyzed about 300 people who lived between about 13,000 and 400 years ago, and described them clearly as never before. Unique population history. Iberian Peninsula.

Iberian hunter-gatherers showcase two ancient Paleolithic descent

In the paper by the researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Human History, Current Biology, the researchers analyzed 11 hunter-gatherers and Neolithic people from Iberia. The oldest person in the latest analysis is about 12,000 years old and recovered from Balma Guilanyà in Spain.

Early evidence suggests that after the end of the last ice age, Western and Central Europe were dominated by hunter-gatherers whose ancestors were associated with individuals of approximately 14,000 years old from Villabrunne, Italy. In the past ice age, Italy was considered a potential refuge in Iberia. The lineage associated with Vera Bruna has largely replaced the early ancestry of Western and Central Europe, which is associated with people between the ages of 19,000 and 15,000, who are associated with the so-called Magdalen cultural complex.

Interestingly, the results of the current study suggest that both pedigrees exist in Iberians dating back to 19,000 years ago. "We can confirm the survival of another Paleolithic lineage dating back to the Iberian late ice age," said Wolfgang Hucker, senior author of the study at the Max Planck Institute for Human History. "This confirms the role of the Iberian Peninsula as a refuge during the last ice, not only harmful to animals and plants, but also beneficial to humanity."

This shows that after the last ice age, the individuals associated with Vera Bruna did not replace them. Iberian hunter-gatherers actually had the pedigree of Magdalenian and Villabruna-related sources. This finding indicates an early link between the two potential refuge, leading to the genetic system surviving in the later Iberian hunter-gatherers.

"Hunting from the Iberian Peninsula – Collectors carry two older genetic types: one that dates back to the last glaciers, once maximized individuals attributed to Magdalene culture, and A place where you can find anywhere except the Iberian Peninsula, Western and Central Europe replaced the Magdalen lineage in all the early Holocene," explains Vanessa Villalba-Mouco of the Max Planck Institute for Human History. Said the first author of the study.

The researchers hope that continuous efforts to crack the European late hunting – collecting the genetic structure of the organization will help to better understand the past of Europe, especially by expanding the assimilation of the Neolithic lifestyle brought about by the lives of farmers. Near the East during the Holocene.

The ancient DNA of the individual from the past 8,000 years helps to clarify the history and prehistoric history of the Iberian Peninsula

The paper published in Science focuses on later periods and traces the population history of Iberia over the past 8000 years by analyzing ancient DNA from a large number of individuals. The study, led by Harvard Medical School and the Broad Institute, includes Haak and Villalba-Mouco, analyzing 271 ancient Iberia from the Middle Stone Age, Neolithic Age, Bronze Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age and Historical Period. people. A large number of individuals allow the team to make more detailed inferences for each time period than before.

The researchers found that during the transition to a sedentary agricultural lifestyle, Iberian hunter-gatherers made a subtle contribution to the genetic makeup of newcomers from the Near East. Villalba-Mouco explained: “We can see that there must be a local mixture, because Iberian farmers also have the dual characteristics of Iberian-specific hunter-gatherer lineage.”

Between about 2500 and 2000 BC, researchers observed that people from a region of the Pontic steppe (now Ukraine and Russia) replaced 40% of the Iberian lineage and nearly 100% of the Y chromosome. Interestingly, the results of the study show that in the Iron Age, “grassland” spread not only to the Indo-European region of Iberia, but also to non-Indo-European regions, such as the Basques. Researchers' analysis shows that today's Basques are most likely to be the typical Iberian Iron Age population, including the influx of “grassline”, but they have not been affected by subsequent genetic contributions affecting other parts of Iberia. . This suggests that, due to the arrival of grassland populations, Basques are genetically affected as well as other groups, but retain their language anyway. It was only after that that they were relatively isolated from the rest of the Iberian Peninsula.

In addition, the researchers studied historical periods, including Iberian Greece and later Roman settlements. The researchers found that at least since the Roman period, the peninsula's lineage was altered by gene flow from North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. They found that Greek and Roman settlements are often multi-ethnic, from the Mediterranean and the eastern and eastern parts of the East, as well as to locals, who have long-lasting demographic and cultural influences.

"In addition to the specific insights about Iberia, this study can also be used as a model to illustrate how high-resolution ancient DNA cross-sections can be used to describe the formation of today's populations in detail." Ke explained. . “We hope that using similar strategies in the future will provide equally valuable insights in other parts of the world.”

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