Vinegar flies of the genus Drosophila have either developed a more sensitive odor perception at the cost of poor vision or vice versa — ScienceDaily

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Ian Keesey, Markus Knaden, and Bill Hansson and other authors found different behaviors in early studies on black-bellied vinegar Drosophila melanogaster and cherry vinegar fly Drosophila suzukii, a relatively new pest of Central Europe: D. Melanogaster is more likely to be attracted by the smell of food, and also plays an important role in foraging in D. suzukii vision. These behavioral preferences are also reflected in the different sizes of individual sensory organs. Based on this observation, scientists hypothesized that changes in vision and smell are the result of so-called trade-offs. By this term, biology describes when a beneficial change in one property is associated with a detrimental change in another feature in the adaptation environment. In the case of the genus Drosophila (19459003) belonging to this trade-off seems to occur in the expression of visual and olfactory organs.

To test their trade-off assumptions, the researchers examined the form and function of the eyes and antennae, as well as the related visual and olfactory brain structures of a total of 62 species: "genus { fruit fly We provide greater sensory expression variations than we would expect in a closely related insect population. In fact, large eye species exhibit small noses or antennae, while species with larger antennae have a smaller eye proportion. "The main author, Ian Casey, said. In turn, the size of the sensory organs reflects the preferences associated with choosing a host plant or spouse. Big nose flies are more likely to use olfactory cues, while bigeye flies are more likely to follow visual cues.

"A detailed analysis of the eyes and tentacles reveals the overall trade-off between vision and smell: we find that species that invest primarily in vision, species with roughly the same vision and smell, and species that depend primarily on species have their sense of smell But the species studied have no big eyes and big antennae," explains Markus Knaden. For their analysis, the researchers reconstructed the main sensory brain structures that play a role in vision and olfaction, including the optic nerve and antennae. In addition, they used high-resolution microscopes to carefully observe the sensory organs of various flies. "One reason why animals must choose a well-developed olfactory system or vision may be that during embryonic development, the sensory organs come from the same structure with only a limited number of nuclei. The competition for resources determines which of the two sense organs More pronounced, so it happens in the early stages of development," said Bill Hansen, director of the Department of Evolutionary Neurology.

An important finding of this study is that genetic characteristics are related. A change in traits can have a huge impact on the body. However, some properties are not easy to modify, especially when linked to another property. "The two senses so carefully studied, such as vision and smell, are interrelated, which is fascinating. We now suspect that there is an evolutionary pressure that encourages insects to prioritize their eyes or nose," Ian Keesey said.

Through their research, scientists hope to open up new avenues in the so-called Eco-Evo-Devo study. The field of research is based on the assumption that the concepts of ecology (eco), evolution (evo) and developmental biology (devo) are closely related, and understanding of ecological relationships requires evolution and development of knowledge, and vice versa. Although genomic data can be used in many species, there is often a lack of understanding of its ecology. “These trade-offs, especially in genetic model organisms, provide a way to determine how ecology and evolution shape the natural world,” says Ian Keesey.

Scientists also want to encourage other research groups not to focus only on the famous fruit fly melanogaster but to include more of this genus in their research. A large number of data sets for this study were available in the Max Planck database Edmond, and researchers are welcome to compare them to other species of species of the genus.

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